1982 - Fourth British Invasion to the Malvinas
Maybe 1982 is the year that is more present, about these subjects in the memory of many. To make this new invasion, the British took us to war. And like all wars, was plagued by human misery; for she had been lied to and continues to be lying to, or last not say everything that is known. Circumstances that led to much of Argentina society, put the item in the drawer of shame.
Perhaps 1982 will be remembered more for the historical recovery of the Malvinas Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich April 2, and the subsequent war
No this is wrong or right, only that by the new "British invasion".
It is to remember that part of our territory is occupied by another nation. Which does not yield an inch before our demands; looking for their convenience only and that really is our enemy as yesterday, today and so always, if we do not remember being Argentine.
The new British Invasion:
Argentina had recovered on April 2nd the Malvinas islands under English colonial rule since 1833. On April 25, the British defense ministry announced that its forces had landed in Georgia islands. At that time an old Argentine submarine of the 2nd world war which supplied a group of Argentine workers on the island was attacked while disembarking supplies.
The submarine ARA "Santa Fe" from the Argentina Navy was attacked while on surface and non-strategic combat maneuvers. There ... at that moment another story begins ..... Gente Magazine 1982
English Invading Forces
Army: 10,700 men.
Navy: 13,000 seamen
Air Force: 6,000 aeronautical
Warships and logistics: 111
Logistics and Combat Aircraft: 117
The English fleet is made up with 2 carriers, 2 amphibious assault ship, 8 destroyers, 15 frigates, 6 tank landing ship, one icebreaker 3 Civilian CruiseLiners, 25 tankers vessel 40 transport, 6 submarines, three minesweepers.
The loss of the British Task Force:
Crews and troops:
Considering the official figures accepted by Britain, 255 men were killed during operations, the figure rising to 777 wounded personnel; Total: 1,032 casualties. This figure shows clearly that was one of the highest percentages of losses suffered by Britain since the Second World War:
Past British Wars - Duration and casualties:
Palestine 1945 - 1948: 223 fighters.
Korea 1950 - 1953: 537 fighters.
Cyprus 1954 - 1959: 105 fighters.
Of Malaya 1958 - 1961: 525 fighters.
Suez 1956: 32 fighters.
Malvinas 1982: 255 fighters.
During the forty-four days of fighting in the South Atlantic, the British suffered casualties at nearly six men per day of combat; while during the conflict with greater numerical losses (Korea), the amount rises about to eleven men, per month.
Fallen British by branch:
Army - Royal Army: 123
Navy - Royal Navy: 88
Fleet Auxiliary - Royal Fleet Auxiliary 10
Marines - Royal Marines: 25
Air Force - RAF 01
Civil - (Kelpers): 3
Kelpers Doreen Baner - Mary Goodwin - Susan Whitley
The amount lost by the UK aircraft is not known exactly, as in the case of personnel casualties , official figures are dubious. Own records tell of the following figures:
BAC Sea Harrier FRS.1: 7
BAC Harrier GR.3 :4
Boeing Chinook HC-1: 3
Westland Sea King HC-4/HAS: 5
Westland Wessex HAS-3/HU-5: 9
Westland Lynx HAS-2: 3
Westland Scout AH-1: 1
Aerospatiale Gazelle AH-1 342: 3
Ships sunken or destroyed:
Type 42 class destroyer Sheffield (D-80) HMS Sheffield
Type 42 class destroyer Sheffield (D-118) HMS Coventry
Type 21 Amazon class frigate (F-184) HMS Ardent
Type 21 Amazon class frigate (F-170) HMS Antelope
Logistic Landing Ship (L-3005) RFA Sir Galahad
Logistic Landing Ship (L-3505) RFA Sir Tristram
Container Ship of great size: Atlantic Conveyor
Landing Craft: Foxtrot 4
Total: 8 (eight)
Ships damaged of consideration:
Light Aircraft Carrier (R-05) HMS Invincible
Light Aircraft Carrier (R-12) HMS Hermes (*)
County class light cruiser (D-18) HMS Antrim
County class light cruiser (D-19) HMS Glamorgan
Type 42 class destroyer Sheffield (D-88) HMS Glasgow
Type 42 class destroyer Sheffield (D-89) HMS Exeter
Type 22 Broadsword Class frigate (F-90) HMS Brilliant
Leander class frigate (F-56) HMS Argonaut
Type 21 Amazon class frigate (F-173) HMS Arrow
Type 12 Rothesay class frigate (F-126) HMS Plymouth
Oberon class submarine (S-21) HMS Onyx
Total: 11 (eleven)
Type 22 Broadsword Class frigate (F-88) HMS Broadsword
Type 21 Amazon class frigate (F-174) HMS Alacrity
Type 21 Amazon class frigate (F-172) HMS Ambuscade
Type 21 Amazon class frigate (F-185) HMS Avenger
Amphibious assault ship (L-10) HMS Fearless
Logistic Landing Ship (L-3029) RFA Sir Lancelot
Auxiliary support vessel Tide class (A-76) RFA Tidepool
Four unidentified craft
Total: 11 (eleven)
The figures indicate that thirty ships were hit by Argentine aircraft and missiles, of which half was attacked on more than one occasion. Fortunately for the Task Force of the many MK-17 bombs dropped, only two exploded causing the sinking of their ships (HMS Ardent, 21 May and HMS Antelope, May 23, the latter, while trying its disarm).
More than a dozen of these bombs did not explode, or simply crossed the ships cleanly. The truth is that the power of the MK-17 is such that its effect would have caused the destruction of the ship impacted.
Allied Forces - Collaborators:
During the Malvinas war, many European and American countries were allied or somehow collaborated with England, which allowed them to break the fighting capacity of Argentina. Countries like France, the U.S., Chile, Uruguay and Brazil supported the British Task Force during the conflict.
The United States provided aid to Britain of such magnitude that was decisive in the outcome.
To test this claim reproduce what characterized authors say about it:
a) "Without the Harriers ... and using the latest version of the Sidewinder missile provided by Caspar Weinberger (Defense Secretary USA), we could not recover the Malvinas". "Even the Americans ... were providing an invaluable aid. I mentioned the Sidewinder missile. We were also provided 150,000 square yards (125,000 square meters) of plates to create a improvised runway . On May 3, 1982 Caspar Weinberger even proposed to send the aircraft carrier "Eisenhower" for use as mobile landing runway (Margaret Thatcher "The Downing Street Years", Ed Sudamericana, p 225/26..);
b) "The assistance provided included ammunition, equipment, twelve million gallons of aviation fuel and latest version of 200 Sidewinder missiles. But even more useful, Britain received vital military intelligence intercepted communications and a reconnaissance satellite that was removed from its orbit on Russia for this purpose. ""... And Lehman (Secretary of the U.S. Navy in 1982) said that without American aid Britain would have had to withdraw from the Falklands" (sic) "(David Dimbledy, An Ocean Apart, BBC Books). The latter author has made a TV documentary available in Argentina. There are many testimonies to the same effect. But we must add something fundamental: U.S. aid was completed in April, while his Secretary of State mediated between the parties.
A C-141 Starlifter USAF for unknown use and RFA English ship "Stena Inspector" was equipped by the U.S.. Arrived when the war was over.
In addition to this equipment, from the U.S.;
Satellites were used to recognize and to spy Malvinas targets: two photographic sensing and electronic detection.
Information about the movement of Argentine ships was sent.
Helped with a permanent channel of communications between the high command in Northwood with the Expeditionary Force.
was made Via satellite to help transmit communications between ships and command centers along the supply line of 8,000 miles.
It was supplied with fuel:
Shipping 4 million liters of aviation fuel to Ascension.
The book Malvinas Battles says carried to Ascension 6000 tn. fuel transported in their own tanker vessels.
Plates to adapt to the AIM-9L in the Sea Harrier
Satellite dishes for satellite communications
Equipment for submarine detection
Flare Cartridges for M130 system
Photography equipment and aircraft detection.
100 AIM-9L (200 ov).
8 sets of Stinger SAMs.
Projectiles for light weapons.
Projectiles for guns.
Electronic equipment in the S of Chile.
The Argentinean WarCode of Communications which had been deciphered by the NSA USA
AGM-45 Shrike Missiles.
Signs of intelligence (SIGINT).
replacement Airplanes for Věctor tanks.
Harpoon antiship missiles
KC-135 aircraft (which complemented the English air).
Fighter-Bomber aircraft with vertical takeoff of the Marines.
Accurate information on the frequency of radar and communications equipment and information on Argentine certain capabilities of Argentine units emerged from the above combined operational vessels.
A water treatment plant.
350 escape valves for torpedoes.
A cannon AA Vulcan Phalanx
A CH-47 engine
Small campaign stoves
Illuminating projectiles for 60mm mortar
Ammunition 40mm high explosive
18 Launch containers CTU-2 A
Tns 4700. of iron plates to make a improvised runway
Combat ration packs for long patrols
According to former defense secretary John Nott, France was a "staunch ally" of Britain during the conflict. "While the U.S. wanted to negotiate, France helped win the 1982 war," he revealed.
During the Malvinas war, France was the staunchest U.S. ally for Britain with secret information that enabled the agents of the MI-6 service sabotage Exocet missiles during the conflict.
"I Mitterrand and the French were our greatest allies," he said. "As soon as the conflict began, France gave us access to their aircraft and Mirage Super Etendart-wich were supply to the Argentina-for Harrier pilots could train against them." France also gave Britain "information about the Exocet, which had sunk Sheffield and Atlantic Conveyor, to intercept them."
The confession is in the memoirs of Sir John Nott, who was Secretary of Defence during the war and that anticipated in the conservative English newspaper The Daily Telegraph.
They revealed that while "President Ronald Reagan Margaret Thatcher pressured to accept negotiations with Argentina, France helped Britain to win the war in 1982."
The Iron Lady and French President Francois Mitterrand had faced serious about the future of Europe. The French leader remembered with "the mouth of Marilyn Monroe and the eyes of Caligula." But it was his ally and came to his aid when the Argentines invaded the islands in 1982.
"A remarkable operation worldwide was launched to prevent Exocet missiles were purchased by Argentina," former Secretary of Defence said. "I authorized our agents to pose as buyers in international markets, ensuring that we we won the Argentine bid and other agents identified Exocet missiles it in other markets and turning inoperable "he recalled.
Sir John Nott said the French attitude contrasted with the American desire to save face President Leopoldo Galtieri, an ally of Washington in its anti illegal operations in Central America.
"With all his friendship with Margaret Thatcher and Ronald Reagan, he always remained an American West Coast looking south to Latin America and the western Pacific. Sometimes I wondered if he knew or cared about where was Europe" clarified.
Former British defense secretary recalls his American colleague Caspar Weinberger as a British ally but complains that the "State Department was dominated by Latinos."
"There was enormous pressure from the White House and the State Department to negotiate. they Could not understand that any negotiating agreement for us was like a defeat," he said.
Sir John does not hide the "utter disregard" feeling towards the British Foreign Office, which showed insecurities when Thatcher proposed sending the "task force" to the islands.
Neither was too diplomatic to judge the role of the Americans in the current war on terror and the role of Britain. "I am against the Americans breaking things with their aerial bombardment and then leaving us to be the assistant police to pick up the pieces," he said.
The British Foreign Office do not commented the advancement of the memories of the Secretary of Defense of Margaret Thatcher. The Iron Lady has rejected the invitation to visit the Malvinas Islands to celebrate the 20th anniversary of the war. Considers that the trip would be "too heavy for Denis" her octogenarian husband. "I feel that the trip would be to heavy for me. Know that he did not want to go without him," wrote Governor Donald Lamont.
The former head of the Chilean Air Force said it was the response to the threat of an attack from Argentina. "Galtieri said it would recover all that was Argentine, and the people roared with approval," he recalled.
The former head of the Air Force of the Chilean dictatorship, General Fernando Matthei said yesterday that his country collaboration with Britain during the Malvinas war was a response to what the government of Augusto Pinochet regarded as the threat of an Argentine attack .
The possibility of such an attack was not "a guess" Matthei said in an exclusive interview with the newspaper La Tercera. He said the then president of Chile "have agreed to a strategic partnership with the British."
The former British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher had left transcend after the war the expeditionary force in his country had received information from Chilean intelligence and, moreover, had been allowed to use airstrips in the country.
However, this is the first time a former authority in Chile supports the collaboration of London had its origin in a potential conflict along the Beagle Channel, on the Argentina and Chile were about to go to war in 1978.
Confession of Matthei coincides with the imminent publication of a book that the British historian Lawrence Freedman wrote about it at the request of the government of Tony Blair.
Matthei was in charge of the Chilean Air Force until 1990. Was considered a man close to Pinochet. Yesterday recalled that Argentine President at that time, Leopoldo Galtieri, "was reported in the Plaza de Mayo was going to recover all that was Argentine and which was in the South ... And all the Argentine people roared with approval."
Matthei also explained that the English offered to Chile sell air assets in exceptional conditions, at a time when the country was impaired to purchase weapons. "We needed to strengthen the Air Force-pointed-and then could not buy anywhere, we were embargoed everywhere. Then there we had the opportunity to buy items at a very low price."
He said Chile and acquired nine British Hawker Hunter aircraft and, after the war, received three photo reconnaissance aircraft. "The brotherhood Argentina is very important to me, but now, with such a clear threat, I had an obligation to do everything imaginable to strengthen the defense of Chile, it was my responsibility," he added.
Chile, not only provided logistical support to the British, but made available to all detection systems, procurement, intelligence, support special commands Englishmen stalked our air bases and more, so much so that on one occasion to he fell to the ground near Punta Arenas a British helicopter with several crew members, some of whom died.
Once, Brazil gave access to one of their bases to an English nuclear submarine, although it had More Actions for Argentina than others.
The Brazilian government in 1982 faced a diplomatic dilemma. when they retained a British war plane during the Falklands War, according to secret documents released today by local media
The decision of the Brazilian government to prevent the shipment towards Malvinas of an aircraft Vulcan-bomber of the Royal Air Force -provoked deep unease in relations between Brazil and the UK, said the newspaper O Estado de Sao Paulo.
In June 1982, the bomber, technical issues and loaded with weapons, was escorted by Brazilian fighters and landed in Brazil, after which began a "diplomatic war" between Brazil, UK and Argentina, said the newspaper, quoted Ansa news agency.
"The British claimed that, while was holding the plane, the Brazilian government turned a blind eye to the passage by Brazil in technical scale aircraft with weapons coming from Libya heading to Argentina," wrote the newspaper.
Records of the now defunct National Intelligence Service (NIS) are the problem facing the Brazilian-led dictatorship by President Joao Baptista Figueiredo-by the war between Argentina and the United Kingdom.
According to O Estado, "was a complicated issue. Brazil he advocated a negotiated solution, but declared his support for Argentina's claim for possession of the islands. that is was not neutral.
The problem was that, by retaining the bomber, the Argentine government had asked neutrality rules were applied. "
"If we fulfilled the Argentine request, Britain could make demands the application of neutral status also with Argentina, which would be incompatible with the various forms of support we have given to our neighbor," said a letter sent by the then Chancellor Figueiredo and cited by the newspaper.
Finally, Brazil returned the plane to Britain, but without armament and with the commitment that it would not be used in war, as requested by the Argentina.
Instead Uruguay, was warmly kept our side but they provided logistical support to the British, opening its air and sea space to the English ships and preparing a Hospital in Montevideo for British casualties, before being referred to other hospitals in the capital all Uruguayans patients.
Argentine Forces Defenders
Army: 10,001 soldiers.
Navy: 3,119 seamen
Air Force: 1,069 aeronautical
Argentina's fleet consisted of: 1 aircraft carrier, one cruiser, 6 destroyers, 3 corvettes, 2 tanker ship 1 tank landing, 2 icebreaker 9 transports, 2 submarines, 2 auxiliary, 2 Coast Guard cutter 7 spy ships.
In the Malvinas war, Argentina was verbally supported the by the Third World countries, and morally and materially, the only one who did was Peru, with modern aircraft, materials and maintenance men. They sent us 10 fighter aircraft of the latest generation.
Peru was the only country that decided to support the American cause by Argentina
The Peruvian people protested and mobilized like never before in defense of non-Peruvian interest,, large queues of Peruvian volunteers at the Embassy of Argentina to offer his life the demonstrations were many long queues were recorded the Peruvians volunteers to give their lives for a Latin American cause.
Mirage Fighter Squadron V bombers, gunships with guided missiles, missiles, troops, equipment and materiel were sent.
No people like Peru, more caring, for that reason several towns and malls and streets in Peru were named Malvinas forever
U.S. preferences leaned towards England and the war had begun. Everything which would be defined by air and sea
Equally important and decisive was the contribution of the Peruvian Navy to enhance the country militarily brother of Argentina during the Malvinas war.
The Navy of Peru collaborated nothing less than transporting military equipment from Israel to Argentina during those critical months of April and May 1982, than the neighboring country was fighting with the powerful British navy.
During the war, and following the immediate severing of diplomatic relations between the two states, the Peru represented Argentina's diplomatic interests in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and, in turn, Switzerland represented diplomatic interests Britain in Argentina. So, Argentine diplomats in London, became Argentina Peruvian diplomats and British nationality in Buenos Aires, British Swiss diplomats.
Both Peru and Switzerland deployed their maximum diplomatic efforts at the highest level to achieve peace between countries in conflict to reach their goal by the proposed by the Peruvian President Fernando Belaunde Terry peace plan have been accepted.
It was a fair-operation and no negotiated arms. An informal agreement between governments and armed forces armed force, maintained absolute secrecy until now.
Argentina had taken possession of the Malvinas Islands on April 2, 1982. did not calculated the reaction of Margaret Thatcher. The British Royal Navy moving along the Atlantic decided to eviction.
Wanted and we could do more, but unfortunately we did not for many circumstances. Most importantly it's intentions
The Malvinas showed us Peruvians who had the courage and the courage to defend the interests not only in Peru but in the region, we feel as if we hitting our brother in our own home and of course we had to do something, we never would have stayed idle.
We realized that we are a town where our borders are not represented by our country but for those of South America and the defense of the interests of our brother were also defending ours in the background.
And be sure that if any other power has the audacity to attack a neighboring country, the Peruvians will be there again giving hand for
The unique codes for the Exocet missiles that could not access England were which sent the Republic of Peru.
While Peru was the only country that openly supported the Argentina during the war. During and following the immediate severing of diplomatic relations between Argentina and the United Kingdom war, Peru became the communication link between the two countries. Furthermore it was revealed that during the course of the war, Peru sent several Exocet missiles and a fleet of Mirage fighter bombers M5-P in a secret operation to a base in Argentina for the purpose of their being used in the war against England. Also working in the transportation of military equipment from Israel to Argentina, as well as with intelligence operations, military supplies and medicines. Peru also mobilized its naval fleet south border it shares with Chile, in order to neutralize the Chilean military movement to Patagonia. The Peruvian armed forces were ready to take action if Chile took part in the conflict.