1908 - English Invasion at South Georgia, Patagonia and the Antarctic Peninsula Argentina
The first whaling company that was established in South Georgia Islands (San Pedro Island, the largest island), was Argentinean, powered by the same Captain Larsen, that after the affair with Norwegian Dr. Otto Nordenskjold and the wreck of his ship "Antarctic", he settled in Buenos Aires.
Argentina Fishing Company (CAP) was created with Argentinean capital and ship's flag but mostly Argentinian and Norwegian crews. Captain Larsen was the manager and the November 16, 1904 established the first whaling station in Grytviken, San Pedro Island, Cumberland Bay.
By this time, the islands were uninhabited and Argentina with that act, formally took possession of the islands, hoisted their flag there, and the company began to hunt whales.
From 1905 routinely visited the island of San Pedro the Transport ARA "Guardia Nacional" transport our Navy, which carried food and equipment for the Company routinely over several years.
The big rise of the whaling business awoke the English greed, and a business idea they imagined can give it to the fact that from 1905-1929 were caught in Antarctic waters and South Atlantic, mostly in our sector, 95,776 whales.
In that quarter century, the worldwide total was 200,000 whales caught, indicating that in the Antarctic Argentina were caught 50% of the world total. By 1925 there were 69 whaling companies of all nationalities and one was Argentina, the first one to be installed.
As soon as Britain learned the good prospects that were achieved in whaling in the Southern Ocean, continuing its expropriatory policy, decided to tax whaling that develop below parallel 50 ° South Latitude, taking advantage of its usurper presence in the Malvinas Islands.
For that unilateral and capricious reason, England in 1908 sanctioned a Carte clinching the South Sandwich Islands, South Georgia, Southern Argentina and Chile territories, leaving according to their claim under his power besides the islands, the Province of Santa Cruz, the National Territory of Tierra del Fuego and the Antarctic Peninsula. That same year installed 250 meters of the existing Argentinean factory in Gritviken Port (South Georgia) a representative of the British crown to start taxing.
To explain this new British invasion is necessary to make some preliminary assessments.
The Malvinas Islands are islands of our Southern Atlantic, Georgia and South Sandwich Islands are sub-antarctic islands, or be included within the Antarctic convergence line where the sea water temperatures surrounding the sixth continent, suddenly growing various degrees .
Antarctica is a continent larger than Europe, and Argentina claim a sector that has over one million square kilometers
Antarctica was discovered around 1819 by Argentines, English or American sealers, but the sub-antarctic islands were discovered well before. So South Georgia it was very doubtful and questionable manner by Antonio de la Roche in 1670, as more clearly by the Spanish merchant ship "Lion" in 1756 and visited by James Cook in 1775.
The English navigator James Cook in 1775 discovered the South Sandwich Islands, located more than 2,000 kilometers of the coast of Patagonia. But the three northernmost islands of the Sandwich group, were discovered by the Russian Admiral Fabian Gottlieb Bellingshausen in 1820.
Antarctica and the sub-antarctic islands were visited by explorations of various countries.
Already in 1877 and in our sector the Argentine Navy by Act of June 13, 1877 about Research and Plans for Lighthouse Authorities and Appreciation of the Eastern Coasts Patagónicas, the "Tierra del Fuego" and Austral, start planning and preparing to tackle the antarctica.
In 1878 the Corvette ARA "Uruguay, the" Monitor ARA "Los Andes" and bomber ARA "Constitution "depart unther the command of the Navy Commander Sq. Luis Piedrabuena, to perform Hydrographic and Beacons Campaign the Patagonian coasts from Mar del Plata to the South of the Rio Santa Cruz, where some incidents occur with the Navy of the Republic of Chile
In the summer of 1881-82, depart the corvette ARA "Cabo de Hornos", the ARA Cutter "Patagones" and the schooner "San Jose", commanded by Navy Lt. Col.. Dn. Luis Piedra, seconded by Navy Captain Sq. Edelmiro Correa of Argentina in support to the Italian Antarctic Expedition led by Lieutenant Sq. Giacomo Bove (Italy).
By 1892, The Argentine Navy presented to National Government the First Expedition Plan to Antarctica geared to the Graham Land.
In the spring of 1894, the departs Corvette ARA "Uruguay", to carry out a campaign of exploration of Graham Land, crossing the Drake Passage, a heavy storm sweeps her fully and must abort the campaign back to their post station in Buenos Aires
In 1896, the Argentine Geographical Institute prepares a Plan of Allocation of Georgia and South Shetland Islands and the De Los Estados, for studies of fauna, flora and geography and build a Relief and Rescue station to Navigators.
In 1898 takes placethe Argentine Support to the Antarctic Expedition of Adrian de Gerlache - In appreciation designates the 1st Argentine Toponym in Antarctica - "Canal del Plata" in Wilhelmina Bay.
In 1900, departs of Buenos Aires, the First International Antarctic Expedition-Germany - Argentine - England - Sweden. The Argentine joins and participates installing a Magnetic Observatory on the Año Nuevo island The Argentine Navy Plan a new tour for Antarctic exploration.
In 1901, the Argentine Navy began regularly explorations with vessels of the Navy
In 1904, Argentine Navy permanently occupied the observatory on Orcadas South Island, the only international event of a permanent base from that date until the present around the Antarctic continent.
Since 1908 and regularly since 1947, Argentine sent the Antarctic expeditions of exploration, occupation, their scientific and logistic sector. The Lieutenant Junior Grade and Doctor José María Sobral was the first Argentine who wintered in Antarctica in 1902-1903 so he became one of the men-symbol of Argentine Antarctic sovereignty.
In 1892, the Norwegian Captain CA Larsen was sent to the Antarctic seas by a whaling company of Sandfjord (Norway), to study the possibilities of exploiting whales. Larsen's ship was the Brigantine "Jason", who made a campaign in the northwestern Weddell Sea. This was the beginning of discovery and ruthless exploitation of the whale, begun in 1904 and still continues. The whale hunted almost to the point in the northern seas, lived in large quantities only in Antarctica.
The first whaling company which was established on South Georgia Island in San Pedro, the largest island, was Argentina, powered by the same Captain Larsen, that after the Norwegian expedition with Dr. Otto Nordenskjold and the wreck of the "Antarctic "he settled in the country.
Argentina fishing company was established with capital ships and Argentina and Argentinian flag but mostly Norwegian crews. Larsen was the manager and the November 16, 1904 established the first whaling station in Grytviken Harbor, San Pedro Island, Cumberland Bay. The islands were uninhabited then and with that act Argentine formally took possession of the islands and hoisted their flag there, and the company began to hunt whales.
In 1905 he visited the island of St. Peter the Transport ARA "Guardia Nacional", transport of our Navy, which carried food and equipment for the Company. Reconoissance was also made and Cumberland Bay chart was fabricated.
In 1905/6 was installed on the island a Norwegian floating factory, which sank shortly after, and in 1907 appeared a second.
In 1907/8 the companies operating there were three and in 1908/9 were five, two Norwegian, one English, one South African and the Argentinean. The big rise of awoke the English whaling business greed, and an idea can give that from 1905-1929 they had caught in Antarctic waters, mostly in our sector, 95,776 whales. In that quarter century, the great world total was 200,000 whales taken, indicating that in Antarctica captured 50% of the total. Then whaling companies were 69 and one was Argentina, the first one.
Until 1908, England, settled in the Malvinas, had not larger signs of interest in appropriating that area, but economic wealth prompted to give the blow we consider a new British invasion
Indeed, on 21, July 1908 was enacted, initialed by with the Great Seal of the United Kingdom a Letters Patent establishing which were dependencies of the Colony of the Malvinas Islands, the islands "South Georgia, South Orcadas, South Shetlands, sandwich Islands, and the territory known under the name of Graham's Land situated in the South Atlantic Ocean, south of the parallel 50 ° south latitude and located between 20 and 80 degrees west longitude. "
The text of the Letters Patent of 1908 proclaimed the following:
Westminster, July 21, 1908:
Eduardo Seventh etc. (...)
Considering that the group of islands known under the name of South Georgia, South Orcadas, South Shetland, Sandwich Islands, and the territory known under the name of Graham's Land, located in the Atlantic Ocean Sud, just south of the 50th parallel of latitude south, and located between 20 and 80 degrees west longitude, are part of our Dominions, and it is appropriate that their governments as our Colony Dependencies of the Falkland Islands are declared.
1st)now hereby declare from now, and after this our publications Patent Letter in "Gazette" of our Colony of the Malvinas Islands, that these groups of islands known as South Georgia, the South Orkneys, the South Shetlands, and the Sandwich Islands and the territory referred to Graham's Land, will become our said Colony Dependencies of the Falkland Islands.
2nd) And hereby we declare that from and after such publication, as stated above, the current Governor and Commander in Chief of our Colony of the Malvinas Islands (hereinafter called the "Governor"), will be the Governor of South Georgia, South Shetland, Orcadas and South Sandwich Islands and the territory of Graham's Land (all of which later are called dependencies); and hereby grant you all powers of Government and Law, in and Dependencies, from time to time have been granted to our Governor mentioned, and our Colony of the Malvinas Islands.
Let's hear a British author of this unusual unilateral declaration, first appropriated the islands, lands and seas. "This year 1908 was marked by an event of supreme importance in the history of the islands on 21 July a Bachelor of Privilege was passed under the great seal, appointing the Governor of the Malvinas Islands as Governor of Georgia South Orkney Islands, South Shetland Islands, Sandwich Islands and Graham Land and giving provisions for the government as colonial dependencies.
This vague, inadequate title Dependencies of the Malvinas islands comprising the land between longitudes 20 ° and 50 ° west to south of latitude 50 º South and between longitudes 50 ° and 80 ° or south of latitude 58 º S. These limits include a sector Antarctic land area south, and over a million square miles of sea, easily accessible for whaling, fishing and seal hunting, bringing the total area to about three million square miles, or one and a half percent of the total surface of the globe.
England proclaimed the sovereign dominion over seas and islands in 1908, when he held the "Mare Liberum" still being discussed property rights over the sea, especially sovereignty of coastal states. Moreover, in Antarctica not consulted nor taken into account Argentina's rights. Most remarkable is that within this vast expanse was included nothing less than the southern province of Santa Cruz our part, throughout the national territory of Tierra del Fuego and all Chilean lands south of latitude 50 º S. belonging to the Trans-Andean Territory Magellan.
Both the Argentine government and the Chilean protested this absurd and arbitrary measure and March 28, 1917, England rectified, amusing, its Antarctic empire and established as northern boundary, between the meridians 30 ° and 8 ° west, latitude 58 º South. The rest was the same with this measure fell outside of the mentioned sector, the Falklands, which did not need the additional statement of arrogance and the Chilean and Argentine mainland territories.
Our Antarctic sector, pointed out so sparingly as a right is fully included in the English sector. Thousands of miles of their metropolis, empire and power gave the English a show of strength and took advantage of weak maritime of a friendly and cooperative nation. Again England abusing his power had built his empire more than a million square miles of seas and territories without having informed, consulted or negotiated to genuine possessors of them.